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Simple to Complex Sentences

22 Dec 2018

Simple to Complex Sentences

                                                                    Simple to Complex


Simple, Complex, ??? Compound sentence - transformation ?? ???????? ????? ????? clause ??? phrase ???????? ????? ???? ?????????????

Clause ??? phrase ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? - ???? clause ? ???? verb ???? ?? ???? phrase ? ??? verb ???? ??. phrase ? participle, gerund, infinitive, ??????? ?????? ??? verb ???? ??. simple sentence ? ??????? ???? clause ??? ???? phrase ????? 
?????? complex ??? compound sentence ?? ???????? ??????? ????? clause ???? ???????? ????? verb  ????? ?????????? simple sentence ? ????????? ???? verb ?????

Complex - If you study well, you will pass. (Two clauses, two verbs)Simple – By studying hard, you will pass. (One phrase, one clause, and one verb. ????? study ?? present participle ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? clause ?? ?????? ???? phrase ?????? ???, ???? simple sentence ? ???? clause ??? ????? verb ????? ??????)  

Complex sentences have some particular connectors which connect the two clauses. The connectors for complex sentences are: - 
Before, after, till, until, when, where, which, who, whom, why, what, that, since, as, because, if, unless, as if, as though, although, even though, as soon as, so that, on condition that, and provided that.

Note: Complex to simple ??? simple to complex ???? ????? complex sentence ?? connectors ????? functions ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????

Simple  sentence ?? complex sentence ? ?????????? ????? simple  sentence  ?? ???? clause ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? clause ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? clause ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? connectors ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? simple sentence ?? complex sentence ? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????

????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? :

Rule 1:

If there is an extra phrase in the simple sentence, expand that phrase to make a clause. Then choose a suitable connectors to connect the clauses.

Phrase  ???? clause  ? ???????? ???? ????? ???? verb ???? ??? ??? ??? subject ?? ???? ????? ???? subject ? ???? ????

Example: 
Simple: Seeing the teacher, the student stopped making noise.

?? sentence ???? phrase ????? ‘Seeing the teacher’?  ?? phrase ? seeing ?? ????? verb ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? sentence ?? subject ????? ?????? ???? ??? subject ??????? ?????
So, the two clauses we can get from this sentence are: 
*The students saw the teacher ---- *The students stopped making noise.

Transformation ? tense ????????? ?? ???  ??? ???? seeing ?? saw ????????? ???? clause ? subject ?????? ???, ??? ?????? pronoun ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???? connector ????? ???? ???? ? ????? sentence  ?? ???????? ???? ???? connector ? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? 
The complex sentence could be:

As the student saw the teacher, they stopped making noise.Since the student saw the teacher, they stopped making noise.The students stopped making noises whenthey saw the teacher.

??? clause  ??? phrase ?? subject ????? ????? ??, ????? ??? clause ?? ????? ??? subject ?????? 
Example: 
Simple: Alex could not go to school due to his mother’s illness. 
Complex: Alex could not go to school because his mother was ill. 
Or, Alex could not go to school since his mother was ill.

Rule 2:

If there is no extra phrase in the simple sentence, you have to find a word which you can expand into a clause. The word can be an adjective, noun, or adverb.

Example: 
Simple: He pleaded for his innocence.
Complex: He pleaded that he was innocence.   
????? ???? innocence ???????? ??????? ??? ???? verb ??? ?????? clause ???? ?????? innocence ???? noun, ??? ?? clause  ?? ???? noun clause .

More Examples of noun clauses in complex sentences: 
Simple: Murphy knows Mr. Rashid.
Complex: Murphy knows who Mr. Rashid is. 
Simple: I prayed for your job. 
Complex: I prayed so that you could get the job. (Connector – ‘so that’ requires the modal – ‘can/could’ in the following clause.) 
(Note: Complex ???? ???????? extra ???? verb ??? ?????)
Simple: He admitted his guilt. 
Complex: He admitted that he was guilty.

For words that are adjectives, you have to make an adjective clause. 
Example:
Simple: He was an outstanding actor. 
Complex: He was an actor who was outstanding. 
????? outstanding ?????? ???? adjective ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ???? clause ???? ??? ?????? 
More Examples of adjective clauses in complex sentences:
Simple: I lost the most beautiful pen yesterday.
Complex: I lost the pen which was most beautiful. 
Simple: He was a remarkable man. 
Complex: He was a man who was remarkable. 
Simple: I want an extensive encyclopedia. 
Complex: I want an encyclopedia which is extensive.


For words that are adverbs, you have to make an adverb clause. 
Example: 
Simple: He is too weak to carry this heavy bag. 
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot carry that heavy bag. 
Simple: He is working relentlessly to finish the work. 
Complex: He is relentlessly working so that he can finish the work. 
Simple: He was born in the year of liberation war. 
Complex: He was born when it was the year of liberation war.

Rule 3:

???? ???? phrase ?? clause ? ???????? ??? complex sentence ???? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? –

Because of  = clause + because/as/since + clause.

Example: 
Simple: I could not do it because of my illness. 
Complex: I could not do it because I was ill. 
Or, I could not do it as I was ill. 
Or, I could not do it since I was ill.

At the time of (indcation of time)= when + clause + clause / clause + When + clause.

Example: 
Simple: At the time of my birth, my father was abroad. 
Complex: When I was born, my father was abroad.

In spite of/ despite = though/although + clause + clause.

Example:
Simple: In spite of being a good student, he could not do well on the exam.
Complex: Although he is a good student, he could not do well on the exam.
Simple: Despite being sick, Robin went to school.
Complex: Though Robin was sick, he went to school.

Without + v1(ing) = if + clause + clause. / clause + unless + clause.

Example: 
Simple: Without playing well, we cannot win this match.
Complex: If we do not play well, we cannot win this match. 
Or, We cannot win this match unless we play well. 
Simple: Without being there myself, I cannot do it.
Complex: If I am not there myself, I cannot do it. 
Or, I cannot do it unless I’m there myself. 

Too . . (an adjective) . . too = clause + so . .(the adjective). . that + clause.

Example:
Simple: He is too weak to continue walking. 
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot walk. 
Simple: They are too strong to lose. 
Complex: They are so strong that they cannot lose. 
Note: (Connector – ‘so that’ requires the modal – ‘can/could’ in the following clause.)
 

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